C# Vs Python – Know the difference

We might have often heard that knowing how to code well in one programming language is much more significant than knowing several programming languages but none well enough. While there are no two ways that this is true, it is also essential to know learning which programming language can prove to be the most useful in your case. Now, there is no one correct answer to this. The answer will almost always depend on your needs and preferences.

Having said that, this doesn’t mean any one programming language is better than others although knowing which one best suits your projects reduces several potential issues that could eventually occur while you work on the project.

Factors affecting the choice of programming language

Following are some important factors based on which people usually choose a programming language:

  1. Type of project / software / application being developed.
  2. Level of complexity of the product.
  3. Scale of the project.
  4. Performance and efficiency of the language with respect to the product.
  5. Ease of development and maintenance.
  6. Security

In the article below, we look at two popular programming languages C# and Python and also learn how they are different from each other.

C# programming language

C# Overview

C# or C Sharp is a high level, general-purpose, object oriented, component oriented programming language developed by Microsoft back in the year 2000. It was developed as an alternative to C and C++ and hence shares strong resemblance with the two. It most commonly used along with the .NET framework of Microsoft for development and was made open source in 2017.

C# Program Structure

The structure of a C# program is similar to that of a C++ / Java program. As shown in the following example that prints the name of a given user, the code consists of declaration of namespace and definition of class, variables and methods.

using System;
namespace PrintExampleProgram {
   class DisplayUserExample {
      static void Main ( string [] args ) {
   String userExample;
   userExample = Console.ReadLine ();
       	  Console.WriteLine ( " Hello, " + userexample + ". Have a great day ! " );

Features of C#

Here are some major aspects of C#:

  1. C# is a strongly typed language which means it contains strong typing rules and gets scrutinized at compile time for errors and exceptions.
  2. Multiple programming paradigms such as Structured, Imperative, Task-oriented, functional and Object-oriented programming are all supported by C#.
  3. C# can be compiled once and run on multiple platforms i.e. it is cross-platform.
  4. C# is maintained by Microsoft due to which support is easily available from the Microsoft’s Developer Community which large and widespread.
  5. Due to the static codes, C# is highly consistent which also leads to it being is easily scalable and maintainable even in the long run.

Main applications of C#

C# has been used to build some great products that are highly relevant even today. The famous programming question and answer website Stack Overflow as well as the document management and storage system SharePoint are some examples of the same.

  1. It can be used to develop numerous different types of software and applications such as mobile apps, desktop apps, cloud-based services, websites, enterprise software and games.
  2. C# being a programming language by Microsoft, it is not much of a surprise that it is mainly used to develop windows applications. Windows desktop applications are developed using C# and the .NET framework.
  3. C# can be used to build fully functional, efficient and easy to scale and maintain websites.
  4. C# is also one of the popular choices in game development. Well known game engine Unity is a great example.

Python programming language

Python Overview

Python is an open source high level, multi-purpose, object oriented programming language developed by in the late 1980s and was released first in the year 1991. It is an interpreted language and has a built-in debugger. Python is dynamically typed and is also a scripting language.

Python Program Structure

The structure of a Python program is shown below. In the given example, the code prints the name of your favourite programming language. As can be seen, the code has just 2 lines. This same task usually requires minimum of 5 to 10 lines in other programming languages. The code also has a much simpler syntax – there are no type declarations needed. It is almost as if writing sentences in English.

# print your favourite programming language using Python
proglang = input (" Enter the name of your favourite programming language - " )
print ( " Your name is ",  proglang )

Features of Python

Some of Python’s prominent characteristics are as follows:

  1. Python provides support to both, functional as well object oriented programming paradigms.
  2. As Python is an interpreted language, one of its features is that it is dynamically typed and the programs are evaluated and executed at run time.
  3. Python helps developers discard manual memory management and instead use its own garbage collection feature.
  4. Python codes can be easily embedded in other programming languages such as C++. Python also allows using codes from other programming languages such as C++ in your Python code.
  5. Python is platform independent i.e. you don’t need to write a separate Python program for Windows, Mac and / or Linux. Same code will run on all these platforms.

Main applications of Python

Some of the greatest software applications of our time such as YouTube, Instagram, Reddit and Pinterest among many others use Python. Google also used Python in one of their first technology stacks for the development of their first and main product – the search engine.

Nowadays, Python is practically being used everywhere. Following are some examples of applications where Python is widely used:

  1. Python is heavily used in Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. The Python libraries such as Scikit-Learn and NumPy are among many Python libraries that provide support to work in these domains.
  2. Data Science, Data Analysis and Data Visualization are other strong upcoming areas where Python is being used. Libraries such as Matplotlib, Seaborn etc. help you to achieve the desired outputs efficiently.
  3. Python is also picking up as the preferred language for Web Development and Desktop Applications. It is being used in combination with frameworks such as Django and Flask to build secure and scalable products.
  4. Python is currently the go-to choice for building games. PySoy and PyGame are some of the libraries that help in the development of interactive games. Disney’s Toontown Online is a good example of the same.

Similarities in benefits of C# and Python

Following are some of the noteworthy similar aspects of C# and Python:

  1. Both are very simple and easily readable. This saves a lot of time and also increases efficiency.
  2. Both the languages are very beginner friendly and at the same time allows effortless switch for seasoned developers who have experience in one or more object oriented programming language. Although, beginners find Python simpler to grasp than C#, developers of C/C++ etc. find it simpler to learn C#.
  3. Both contains a vast set of libraries that help you implement diverse functionalities with ease.
  4. Both have been and continues to be favourite choices among the software developers and hence resources such as reference material, codes, project repositories and solutions are easily available.
  5. Both are object oriented programming language and hence it is easier to create classes and modules that are reusable. Reusability further helps with maintainability of the software.
  6. Both are being widely used around the world and hence there are never ending opportunities available for skilled developers of these two programming languages.
  7. Both are used for a wide variety of applications such as mobile apps, website development, windows applications, games and countless others.

Differences of C# and Python

Now that we have learnt about both the languages in detail, let us compare them and learn about the major differences between them.

C# Programming LanguagePython Programming Language
C# recently turned open source. Can be used for free for commercial use.Python is open source since the beginning. Can be developed and distributed for free even for commercial use.
C# is a statically written language and is checked and executed at compile time.Python is a dynamically written language and is checked and executed directly at run time.
Multi-threading can be easily performed in C# due to the presence of .NET framework.Multi-threading requires multiple processes and is tedious in Python because of the Global Interpreter Lock.
Pointers are supported in C# and can be used in unsafe mode only.Pointers are not supported in Python.
In C#, type of variable needs to be declared before being used for the first time.In Python, there is no need to declare type of the variable before usage.
C# has more number of keywords i.e. 86 keywords.Python has less number of keywords i.e. 33 keywords.
C# is faster and has a better performance due to Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)The lifecyle of development is fast but lags performance wise.
Syntax is more organised and has a consistent format.Simple and easy syntax. Does not contain too much of symbols, formats, etc.


As we have seen from the similarities and differences of C# and Python, both languages have some great common advantages and at the same time have some major differences. Like I mentioned earlier, there is no correct or wrong choice of programming language – just a more suitable one with respect to what you are working on. Putting the positives of the chosen programming language to a proper use can prove to be a great advantage to your project.

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